Statewide, no-refusal is expanding and here to stay
Published: December 19, 2012
If late some night this week police suspect you of driving drunk, stop you and stick a needle in your arm, thank the enterprising cops of Hereford, Texas — the self-proclaimed "Beef Capital of the World."
A decade ago, officers in the small Panhandle town were the first in Texas to start using search warrants for blood in misdemeanor DWI cases. Now, according to the Texas District and County Attorneys Association, some 77 percent of elected prosecutors across the state use, at least periodically, such no-refusal tactics in their jurisdictions.
In late October 2011 Bexar County District Attorney Susan Reed made San Antonio the state's largest metro area running full-time no-refusal. That means any driver, any time, stopped in San Antonio and suspected of drunk driving who refuses to blow into a breathalyzer gets carted off to the magistrate and forced to give up blood if a judge approves the warrant – prosecutors keep someone staffed at the magistrate's office to push the warrants through.
Blood draws have exploded since Bexar County first experimented with no-refusal in 2008, starting off with holiday weekends known to see an influx of sloshed drivers. In 2009 Bexar County judges approved just 367 blood draws. According to recent data from the DA's office, October 2011 thru September 2012 saw 3,298 blood draws, 2,659 of which were for misdemeanor DWI cases. The rest were for more egregious felony DWI charges, which already call for a mandatory blood draws, like driving drunk with a child in the vehicle or intoxication manslaughter.
There's indication enforcement, too, has gone up, says First Assistant District Attorney Cliff Herberg. "We usually see about 5,000 DWI arrests every year, and this year we're almost at 7,000," Herberg said, adding that since the start of Bexar County's no-refusal experiment, local intoxication manslaughter cases have fallen by half.
While the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office will have to somehow handle the flood of local blood-draw cases, no-refusal statewide has made blood samples sent to Department of Public Safety crime labs soar, up 500 percent in six years, according to state estimates.
The surge in no-refusal statewide began over worries of serious declines in DWI convictions in recent years. Judge David Hodges, then a judicial liaison with the Texas Center for the Judiciary, told the Legislature in early 2011 that since Texas implemented its Driver's Responsibility Law and the surcharge that it carries for DWI convicts, defendants grew more likely to fight DWI's in court, pushing judges and prosecutors to accept reduced charges instead of letting cases languish in court dockets for years. In 2005, statewide DWI arrests stood at 99,501, with convictions at 63,132. By 2009, the state saw 102,309 DWI arrests but only 44,777 convictions.
Rather than repealing the surcharge, police and prosecutors sought instead to bolster cases with more evidence. "Of those cases without a breath test that were going to trial, we were losing nearly 50 percent of them," said Herberg. "The juries were quite frankly demanding more evidence. The officer's word just wasn't good enough anymore."
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